2nd National Cyber Warfare Conference 2011

  • 2011

    14 September 2011 (afternoon) & 15 September 2011 (full day)

    Incorporates both defensive and offensive (active defence) functions

    The first day of this conference provided essential background information on understanding cyber warfare and the security landscape. It will include presentations on cyber strategies in Australia, US and UK, as well as presentations on the roles of various Australian government and non-government agencies.

    The second day included a series of roundtables addressing key cyber questions.


    Day 1, 14 September 2011
    Conference chair: Athol Yates

    Welcome: Athol Yates

    Conference chair: Ian Dudgeon

    1:10 Cyber security and warfare – Meanings and terms

    • What is meant by cyber warfare and cyber security?
    • How does cyber security/warfare relate to information operations (IO), and Computer Network Operations (CNO) – CNA, CND, CNE.
    • How the reluctance to discuss cyber warfare is changing

    Gary Waters, co-author of Optimising Australia’s Response to the Cyber Challenge (2011)

    Gary Waters, who provided a presentation on definitions and explanations of key cyber terms would like to publicly thank Command Five for their assistance in explaining Advanced Persistent Threats to him.

    2:15 Australian and UK Government approaches to cyber security/warfareCovering:

    • Policies on defence and offense
    • Ability of government and private sector to engage in aggressive defence
    • Government support to the private sector
    • Cyber policy and operation coordination, including agency mandates for cyber


    • Dr Tobias Feakin, Director, National Security & Resilience, RUSI (UK) (TBC)
    • Andrew Davies, Operations and Capability Program Director, Australian Strategic Policy Institute and author of Your system might be at risk—Australia’s cyber security (2011)
    3:00 Break
    3:25 The challenges facing Australian cyber organisations
    Chair: Tim Scully, CEO stratsec & Head of Cyber Security, BAE Systems Australia

    • Grant Edwards, A/National Manager, High Tech Crime Operations,Australian Federal Police
    • Mike Rothery, First Assistant Secretary, National Security Resilience Policy Division, Attorney-General’s Department
    • Richard Windeyer, First Assistant Secretary, Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy
    • Tim Scully, CEO stratsec & Head of Cyber Security, BAE Systems Australia
    5:15 Close
    6:30 Conference networking drinks
    7:30 Safeguarding Australia Dinner
    Dinner Speaker: David Irvine, Director-General of Security, Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO)


    Day 2, 15 September 2011
    9:00 Overview of day
    Speaker: Athol Yates, conference chair
    9:10 Developments in advanced cyber-espionage and cyber-crime networks, and their relevance to cyberwarfare
    Presentation give on behalf of Rafal Rohozinski, CEO of The SecDev Group and a Senior Scholar at the Canada Centre for Global Security, Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto. He is the co-founder and Principal Investigator of the OpenNet Initiative and Information Warfare Monitor. He is a co-author of the Ghostnet, Shadows in the Cloud and Koobface investigations examining advanced cyber-espionage and cyber-crime networks; and contributing author and editor of Access Controlled: The Shaping of Power, Rights and Rule in Cyberspace (MIT Press, 2010).
    9:40 Major challenges facing offensive and defensive use of cyber warfare
    Speaker: James Farwell, Farewell Group, New Orleans
    10:30 Break
    Roundtables – Delegates can attend one roundtable
    11:00 Roundtable 1Cyber Threat and Fortress Mentality

    • Is the threat understood?
    • Do public and private organisations’ boards/senior execs know how to translate cyber threats into a risk & vulnerability assessment for their particular circumstances?
    • How do we overcome the fortress mentality (or, in other words, segregate high threat activity from high impact activity)?

    Facilitator: Tim Scully, CEO stratsec & Head of Cyber Security, BAE Systems Australia

    Roundtable 2Cyber Resilience: An integrated approach

    • What is the extent of fragmentation across Australia’s current cyber spectrum cyber safety, security, offence and defence?
    • Why has this fragmentation occurred?
    • How might concepts of resilience and integrated risk assessment be utilised to result in more resilient cyber capabilities across the spectrum?

    Facilitators: Sal Sidoti, Senior Associate, and Jeremy Lindeyer, Senior Associate, Booz & Company

    Roundtable 3When does commercial information security practice cross into information warfare?

    • If a commercial entity is under attack, is defence their only defence? Can they undertake offensive actions, such as probing, scanning, mirror attacks, extensive profiling (Maltego?)
    • What are the responsibilities for information disclosure? As all participants in the eCommerce chain become more sophisticated, telling people that their banking and/or ATMs are down because of unexpected technical difficulties will become less believable over time – if under attack, how much should be disclosed to the public, and when?
    • Where is the public/private sector boundary for information warfare? How much help should the government give, especially if it won’t allow in law the private sector to operate offensive capabilities? What if the entity under attack also houses/supports public sector information via an outsourcing agreement? What if the entity is cloud- based?

    Facilitator: Milton Baar, Adjunct Lecturer, Centre for Policing, Intelligence & Counter-Terrorism (PICT), Macquarie University

    12:30 Lunch
    1:30 Presentation of the roundtable facilitators back to all delegates
    Roundtables – Delegates can attend one roundtable
    Roundtable 4Securing cyberspace, and the 5 five key drivers shaping cyberspace and their impact on the policy choices

    • What are the characteristics of the key drivers shaping cyberspace (The key drivers are demographic shift in cyberspace, global cybercrime, cyber espionage, militarization of cyberspace, and politicization of cyberspace)?
    • How does the Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC) apply to cyberspace?
    • What are the systemic consequences of policy solutions that address security at all 3 levels of cyberspace: physical, logical, and application?
    • How can middle power countries to punch above its weight internationally in the securing of cyberspace?

    Facilitator: Jeremy Lindeyer, Senior Associate, Booz & Company

    Roundtable 5Strategic implications of cyber war 

    • Australia, the US, UK and their allies need to develop the capability to monitor and act (ideally) within milliseconds while limiting the number of potential false positives for a cyber event. What are the strategic implications?
    • Without attribution information, decision makers would be reluctant to implement some sort of actions that may be recommended to them. This impacts both the emergency and long-term responses to the attacks. What are the strategic implications?
    • Establishing a common knowledge of what constitutes a “cyber war” helps to define the threshold above which the U.S. can employ its various cyber capabilities more aggressively. What are the strategic implications?
    • The vulnerability of cyberspace and the persistent threats to DoD networks leads DoD to determine that it must operate with the “presumption of breach” in its cyberspace systems. DoD recognizes that disruption, degradation, and denial of unclassified and classified U.S. networks will occur, and is planning to operate in a degraded environment. Should this be generally true for other nations? What are the strategic implications?

    Facilitator: James Farwell, Farewell Group, New Orleans

    Roundtable 6The skills crisis in cyber security, defence & warfare

    • Do we fully understand the size and depth of the skills crisis we are in now and will be in shortly?
    • Where are we going to find the necessary professionals to conduct the cyber-security actions we need completed?
    • Do the current training and certification regimes meet the needs of industry and government? If not, why not?
    • Is the weakness with the knowledge and number of specialists, or the knowledge of all users?

    Facilitator: Tim Scully, CEO stratsec & Head of Cyber Security, BAE Systems Australia

    3:40 Break
    4:00 Presentation of the roundtable facilitators back to the group
    4:45 Summary and close